With the cumulative global sales of battery electric buses reaching a new high by the end of 2023, the reliability and practicality of this means of transportation have become the focus of attention in many cities. Especially in extremely cold conditions, its operational capability is challenged. In contrast, the driving range of battery electric sedans in winter may be only about 60% of the standard range, which further attracts attention to the operation ability of battery electric buses in winter.
Battery performance and low temperature challenge
The battery performance is significantly affected by low temperature. The chemical reaction rate of the battery decreases at low temperature, resulting in a decrease in power output efficiency. Battery electric buses may face a 20% to 30% reduction in driving range under extremely cold conditions, while battery electric sedans may only have the driving range about 60%. Therefore, manufacturers have taken measures such as battery heating technology to improve the performance of batteries.
Vehicle performance and environmental adaptability
Overall vehicle performance is also an important consideration in snow and ice environments. Low temperatures may cause the lubricant to thicken and affect the efficiency of moving parts of the vehicle. Therefore, manufacturers have made special designs for battery electric buses such as high-performance tires and reinforced braking systems to ensure safe operation on icy and snowy roads.
Heating demand and energy consumption management
In extremely cold environments, the heating system of vehicles becomes another key item of energy consumption. Battery electric buses need to consume additional electricity for heating, which can account for 15% to 20% of the overall energy consumption. Smart energy management system plays an important role here, balancing driving range and heating needs by dynamically adjusting the energy distribution.
Technological innovation and future outlook
Although extreme cold weather poses challenges to the operation of battery electric buses, these challenges can be overcome through technological innovation. With the progress of technology and the maturity of the market, battery electric buses provide more reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly public transportation services under various climatic conditions.
Yutong battery electric bus E18PRO will carry out a challenge in the extremely cold environment of -20°C in Astana, capital of Kazakhstan. Stay tuned!
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